Articles Posted in DUI 1st Offense

In my role as a Michigan DUI lawyer, examining the evidence is a critical step in every drunk driving (OWI) case I handle.  Can you imagine a doctor or dentist treating a patient without first conducting a thorough examination?  It’s essentially the same thing for a lawyer to properly (emphasis on proper) represent someone facing a DUI charge.  As much as any doctor, dentist or lawyer will want to know what the problem is, he or she will also want to know what it is not.  In the context of a DUI arrest, a driver’s contact with the police and what follows, including the stop (was the car, in fact, swerving?  Did it cross the yellow line?  Did the driver commit some other traffic infraction?), the field sobriety tests, and the arrest itself aren’t just important to the case, they essentially make up the case.  As a result, it is standard practice in my office to obtain and review the video evidence in almost every drinking and driving case that crosses my desk.  In this short article, I want to make clear why it’s always prudent to obtain and review the police car dash-cam video.

Copper-2As a general rule, there is never a good reason to NOT get a copy of the in-car police video.  Many “cut rate” legal operations and court appointed lawyers skip this step, principally because they don’t have enough time to do it, especially for what they’re (often not) paid.  Bargain, flat-fee law offices make their money on the quick turnover of cases, and court appointed lawyers are expected to wrap up a case in just a few minutes after meeting their assigned client in court.  When you hire a good lawyer, however, you should be paying for him or her to do everything necessary to insure the best outcome in your case without wasting time or money on things that won’t.  Reviewing the dash cam video is always the smart thing to do.  Moreover, even in those cases (the majority of them, really) where the dash-cam video does not reveal some catastrophic police mistake that will get the case tossed out of court, or otherwise demonstrate the the driver was not over the legal limit, just knowing that to be the case provides clarity and removes any doubt as to the best way to proceed.

Sometimes the dash-cam video can lay a golden egg, and be used as the basis to challenge the evidence.  Whatever else, DUI cases don’t dismiss themselves, and one thing is for sure: you will never find a reason for a case to be “knocked out” without looking for it, first.  The mindset with which the evidence is approached has a lot to do with this.  If you watched almost any DUI dash-cam video with the instruction to find confirmation or evidence that the subject was driving drunk, you’d probably find some.  Because you were focused on confirming something, you would almost automatically overlook anything that indicated the contrary.  This is known as “conformation bias.”  As a DUI lawyer, I have to assume a contrary conformation bias perspective, namely, that my client did NOT do anything wrong, or anything too wrong, and that if his or her performance on any of the field sobriety tests was something less than optimal, there is a good and rational explanation for it.  Even approaching these videos with an “open mind” isn’t good enough; they have to be watched with an eye to finding those things that help the client.

A big part of being a Michigan DUI lawyer is representing people who have never been in trouble before.  A drunk driving charge is a criminal charge, but the kind of client for whom I handle a DUI is hardly any kind of “criminal.”  Most of my DUI clients are people who have never been arrested before, and therefore never imagined being transported to a police station in handcuffs and spending a night in jail.  Then it happens.  If you’re reading this, chances are you, at least someone you care about, has recently been through a DUI arrest.  If it’s you, then you know it sucks.  If it’s your spouse, partner, sibling, child or someone important to you, you’re probably sharing in the misery.  Let me begin with the good news; Assuming you didn’t hurt anyone, and with the exception of just one Judge in the Greater-Detroit area, there is almost certainly no more jail in your future for a 1st offense DUI.  I say this upfront because I hate how some lawyers pander to people’s fears.  You know the type; they’re everywhere, reminding you of all the ways that a drunk driving charge can ruin your life while selling their services to save you from certain doom.  To be sure, a DUI is serious business, but in more than 26 years, I’ve represented people from every walk of life – from surgeons to sergeants, nurses to nannies, teachers to techies, engineers to bakers – and NOT ONE of my 1st offense drinking and driving clients has ever lost a job, or otherwise been “ruined.”

article-2255011-16B27161000005DC-30_634x603-300x285I wish I could say it was all thanks to me, but the honest truth is that, as scary as all of this can seem, the legal system itself is not designed to destroy anyone’s life over a DUI.  Sure, there is punishment and there are sanctions; the idea is to make it hurt enough so that you won’t let it happen again.  For the most part, that works, at least for my typical client, who is a professional with a lot to lose.  Often enough, a client will present to me with concerns about his or her occupational or professional licensure (everyone presents with concerns about his or driver’s license).  These are all manageable issues, and I mean manageable in the sense that, if handled properly, there will be no interruption or suspension of one’s ability to keep his or her job, or practice in a licensed field.  Still, I understand that there is a kind of persisting mortification that a person experiences after being released from his or her overnight in jail, and the point I want to make here is that while such feelings are normal, they are also, fortunately, misplaced.  The worst is already over.

And therein, really, lies the mystery and the truth.  While a DUI can be a threat to your future, most of the worst consequences aren’t even on the menu in a 1st offense case.  Proper and timely defensive action can protect you from most of the other potential fallout, as well.  The mystery here is the sense of unknown surrounding what will happen – “Am I going to go to jail?” – (no), while the truth is that bundle other consequences that you are at a very real risk to experience.  This is where all that “proper and timely defensive action” comes into play.  And to be clear, “timely” does NOT mean hurry up and hire a lawyer.  On the contrary, you should take your time and get to know the lawyers you’re considering by reading their articles and websites.  There is NEVER a reason to hurry up and hire a lawyer, and the only reason any lawyer would suggest you “act now” or “call today” is so that you won’t continue to look around, explore your options, and find someone else.  Believe me, there is simply no good reason to ever NOT put in the time to really do your homework when it comes to hiring a lawyer.

As a Michigan DUI lawyer, I frequently find myself answering questions about what will happen to a person’s driver’s license as a result of a drunk driving case.  In this article, I want to shift the focus from what will eventually happen to your license, down the road, to the what that paper license that sitting in your wallet right now is all about.  I have done numerous other and thorough examinations of license consequences in both the Michigan DUI section of my website and in various articles within the DUI section of my blog.  Here, we’ll direct our attention to the legal and practical implications of having your physical driver’s license destroyed and exchanged for a temporary driving permit, and exactly what it “permits.”

8828683_yes-cops-can-pull-you-over-for-an-obscured_3cef2cdc_mMichigan DUI law requires the police to confiscate and destroy your physical driver’s license at the time of an alcohol-related driving offense, like OWI.  The police must give you a temporary driving permit (it is called a section 625 G permit) and then enter this information so that your Michigan Secretary of State (SOS) driving record will promptly reflect what has happened.  Imagine, for example, that a person is arrested for a 1st offense DUI and is in an accident a week or so later; the police who respond to the scene will ask for his or her driver’s license, and all he or she will have to give is the paper license (without a photo, no less), so the driving record better confirm that.  The most important thing about this temporary driving permit, and really, the most important point of this article, is that it is a “full” license and does not, in any way, further restrict your ability to drive.  The key word there is “further,” because although the Michigan Temporary driving permit does not restrict your ability to drive, neither does it confer any additional driving privileges that you did not have at the time of its issuance.  Thus, if your license was already restricted at the time of your DUI arrest, the temporary driving permit means that you can still drive, but only in accordance with the restrictions that were already in place.

The easy way to understand this is that the temporary driving permit is the same thing as if you actually lost your wallet, with your license in it, and then went to the SOS for a replacement, and while you waited for your new picture license to arrive in the mail, had to carry a paper temporary license.  This is a subject about which many people are confused, and I can only surmise, somewhat ashamed to ask.  Let me repeat this to make it clear:  If you have been arrested for a drinking and driving offense in Michigan and have been issued a temporary driving permit, there is absolutely no restriction on your ability to drive that wasn’t already there before the incident.  If you had a full license at the time of your arrest, you have a full license thereafter, and until further notice from the SOS.  Things are different, however, for those who refused the breath test and have been given a temporary license on a special form entitled “Officer’s Report of Refusal to Submit to Chemical Test.”  If you have been given that form, you still have a full license, but only for a while.  Lets’ explore this further…

In my day-to-day role as a Michigan DUI lawyer, one of the most common questions I am asked is something like, “What’s going to happen to my driver’s license?” This is often followed by an explanation of how the person needs a license to drive to work, or a question about what can be done so he or she can have a license to at least get to work. In this article, I want to answer those questions; those answers are, in fact, clear and simple, but sometimes the consequences are hard to accept. The whole point of this article is to make crystal clear what will happen to your driver’s license in a drunk driving case. The rules governing what happens are fixed and inflexible, and as frustrating as that can be, it also simplifies things quite a bit.

600x400-Kevins2.jpgBefore I explain how a Michigan OWI charge affects a driver’s license, I need to be a bit undiplomatic and stop a certain line of questions right in its tracks. People will often ask things like, “How do they expect me to keep my job,” or “How am I supposed to get my kids to school.” To be clear, if not cold, under the law, that’s your problem. The rules are the rules, and if you can’t drive to work and that means you’ll lose your job, you need to understand that there is no “they,” and therefore no person, mechanism or system that cares about, understands or who can otherwise do anything about your situation. There is nobody who “expects” you to do anything. Instead, there is a set of rules that applies when you get a DUI, and it applies no matter who you are, how much money you have (or don’t) and whatever your personal situation. If you first accept this principle that these rules apply without exception, then it becomes much easier to understand what will happen to your license.

A common misconception, when someone facing a drinking and driving charge asks about his or her license, is the idea that the Judge, or the enigmatic and undefined “they,” so often the target of the never ending “what about” questions, has anything to do with what happens. Let me make this very clear: What happens to your license is a matter of written law, and no one, including the Governor of the State of Michigan or the President of the United States, can alter, change, lengthen, shorten or otherwise modify any part of it. There is 100% absolutely NO possibility of going to court to “get” any kind of relief or change any part of what the rules require to happen, and there isn’t even a procedure to do so anyway. In other words, trying to go to court to change what happens to your license is like trying to file a case in court to change the weather; it’s not an option. With that established, let’s move on to what does, in fact, happen to your license…
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One of the most common questions I am asked in my role as a Michigan DUI lawyer (especially one who also concentrates in driver’s license restoration cases after multiple DUI’s) is “What will happen to my driver’s license?” This is usually followed by some explanation about how the person needs to drive to get to work (or school, or both, or to take the kids to school, etc.). It goes without saying that everyone needs their driver’s license, but it also goes without saying that when you are caught up in a Michigan DUI, something will absolutely happen to it. In this article, I want to look at the very real world situation where a person is facing his or her 1st DUI offense, including a High BAC charge. In an upcoming installment, we’ll look at the very different situation and results that take place when a person is facing his or her 2nd DUI charge within 7 years, or 3rd within 10 years. For now, however, we’ll limit our examination to 1st offense charges.

MSPP 1.2.jpgObviously, if you’ve never been convicted of OWI (Operating While Intoxicated) before and you’ve been arrested for drunk driving, you can only face a 1st offense charge. Given that I sometimes handle more than 12 drinking and driving cases in a single week, I see just about every situation you can imagine, and one of them that isn’t as uncommon as you’d think involves a person with a prior DUI conviction that occurred more than 7 years ago who winds up facing yet another. In many of these cases, the person will conclude that because he or she had a prior conviction, this new one is automatically a 2nd offense. This is where legal technicalities matter: In Michigan, a “2nd offense” means that a person was convicted of (meaning pled guilty to or found guilty of) a prior OWI offense within 7 years of the date of the arrest for the current charge. The implication here is that your second offense may not actually be a “2nd offense.”

Here’s the good news: If you don’t have a prior DUI conviction within 7 years (and don’t have 2 within the preceding 10 years), you will NOT lose your driver’s license. You may have to deal with a short suspension, and you will certainly have to drive with some restrictions for a while, but your license will not be “yanked” (revoked) by the Michigan Secretary of State (SOS). And this is perhaps the most important point of all: The driver’s license sanctions for each and every drinking and driving offense are set by law, imposed by the SOS, and cannot be modified in any way, or for any reason. The court has nothing to do with what happens to your license, nor can any Judge make a restriction or suspension shorter or longer. The license penalties are set in stone, and no matter what your circumstances, you will receive the exact license sanction for the specific DUI conviction you wind up getting. This means, however, that in many, if not most cases, the charge first made against you after your arrest is more serious than what can and will ultimately be worked out by a Michigan DUI lawyer, like me. Thus, it does little good to run and look up the penalties for your initial charge when I can usually get that charge reduced to something less serious and that carries less of a penalty to your license. Let’s see what this means in the real world of 1st offense DUI cases:
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For most people facing a 1st offense DUI in Michigan, the case marks their first adult contact with the criminal justice system. The sense of apprehension about what will follow can fill the coming days with a sense of fear and doom. In this article, I want to alleviate those misplaced concerns, not with the balm of patronizing reassurance, but rather with a simple overview of how things really work, and why that means, even in the most clear-cut of cases, that things aren’t anywhere near as bad as they seem. We’ll see that most of the things that people worry about don’t ever happen, and that with some intelligent and proactive effort, we can avoid or minimize many of the other, less talked about consequences of a drunk driving charge.

Thumbnail image for tricounty_map 1.2.gifA DUI can, in theory, have up to 6 steps: Arrest, arraignment, pretrial, trial, screening and sentencing. In the real world (meaning in over 99% of cases), there is almost never a trial, and the arraignment stage can usually be skipped, as well. This means that most people will go from arrest to pretrial to screening, and finally to sentencing. Some courts will not allow the arraignment to be waived (skipped). This means, then, that you will go through 4 or 5 of the steps listed above. As noted, very few cases go to trial because almost none of those (0.17% – that’s zero point one seven percent) ever win; more on that later. Accordingly, we wont waste any time talking about a trial that isn’t going to happen anyway, and focus, instead, on the steps just about everyone will take.

Arraignment. You already know what happens between the time of your arrest and release, so there’s little use in going over that. We’ll begin with what happens after you get out of jail and get your car back. In some few cases, a Judge or Magistrate may have already arraigned you before you were let out of jail. In most cases, however, you will either be given a court date or instructions to follow up to learn when you’re due in court. This first court date is called an “arraignment,” and all it really amounts to is a proceeding where you’re told exactly what charge or charges you’ll face -OWI (Operating While Intoxicated), High BAC, DWLS (Driving While License Suspended) and/or Open Intoxicants in a Motor Vehicle. Also, your various constitutional rights are outlined. In most (although not all) local, Detroit-area courts, this arraignment can be “waived” by the lawyer you hire so that you don’t have to go to court or do anything. Although not very common in 1st offense cases, some people wind up having to “test” as a condition of bond or release, meaning they have to provide breath or urine samples as required by the presiding Judge or Magistrate. This is one of those things that you understand rather well if (and because) you’re doing it, and that we can otherwise explain later, if you’re not and it becomes necessary…
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This will be a short article about the role of your BAC (breath or blood test result) in a Michigan drunk driving charge. Just about everyone knows that, a few years back, Michigan adopted a “High BAC” or “super drunk” law. Everyone arrested for a DUI learns, for better or worse, that the enhanced charge kicks in with a breath or blood test result of .17 or higher. Many people, however, do not know that the high BAC offense itself can only be charged in a 1st offense DUI case. In other words, if a person has a prior conviction for a drinking and driving offense within 7 years of the date of the arrest for a new charge, he or she cannot be charged with a high BAC crime.

emprendedores.jpgThis is significant because the reality is that there are plenty of people who, for reasons beyond our current discussion, pick up a 2nd or 3rd offense DUI charge, and then worry (needlessly, as we’ll see) that there is some kind of enhancement or “extra” penalty that can be piled on to make things worse if their BAC result was .17 or higher: There is not. This is a simple truth that gets confused because of complex situations. High BAC charges only apply in 1st offense DUI cases. There is no kind of High BAC legal enhancement, now matter how high the test result, in a 2nd or 3rd offense drunk driving charge. In other words, a 2nd or 3rd offense DUI cannot be charged any differently, or acquire any kind of more serious legal status just because the person’s BAC was through the roof. A 2nd offense DUI with a BAC of .14 is legally no different from a 2nd offense DUI with a BAC of .28. In other articles, I have written about the overarching role of the BAC result in a DUI case, and it is important, but that impact is limited to how the court perceives a DUI driver in general in anything other than a 1st offense, High BAC situation.

Now, if that’s all there was to it, this wouldn’t be much of an article. The law is clear and a High BAC charge can only be made in a 1st offense case, but there is often confusion as to exactly what constitutes a 1st offense case. I see plenty of people properly charged with High BAC who have a prior DUI. The distinction that matters here is that the conviction date for that a prior DUI must be more than 7 years prior to the date of the arrest for the new charge. If, however, a person has had 2 prior DUI’s, none of this usually matters because a person will likely be charged with a 3rd offense, a felony offense. Usually – but not always, and that’s part of what makes all of this so complicated…
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If you have been arrested for a 1st offense OWI (Operating While Intoxicated) charge in any Oakland County city or township, you’ve probably already heard that things are “tougher” there than in neighboring Macomb or Wayne Counties. In this article I want to go beyond just repeating this statement in order to learn why it certainly feels this way if you are the person facing a DUI charge. There are a lot of municipalities in Oakland County, but all DUI charges will be processed through the local courts in either Rochester Hills, Troy, Royal Oak, Novi, Madison Heights, Farmington Hills, Waterford, Oak Park, Southfield, Bloomfield Hills, Pontiac, Ferndale, Berkley, Clarkston, Hazel Park and Plymouth (Plymouth/Canton). The differences amongst these courts and the Judges within them is too vast to even summarize in an article, so we’ll focus instead on the similarities that make Oakland County, like each of the other 2 counties that make up our Tri-County area unique.

Lego Cop 1.2.jpgLet’s start off with a bit of good news: No matter how horrible things may feel or seem right now, they probably aren’t nearly as bad as you fear. When it’s said that the courts of Oakland County are “tougher,” that really has nothing to do with jail. The sole and well-documented exception to this is one Judge in Bloomfield Hills’ 48th district court who usually (but not always) requires even first time offenders to do a bit of jail time. Her practice has garnered national attention precisely because it stands out in such stark contrast to the fact that jail is just not on the menu in all other 1st offense drinking and driving cases, and this applies everywhere, not just Michigan. Beyond easing your worst fears, this should help you look past the sales pitch of those lawyers whose marketing technique is to “avoid jail” in a 1st offense DUI, because that’s not going to happen anyway. We begin then, with the general proposition that you’re not going to jail.

How, then, do Oakland County courts get a reputation for being so tough if they don’t lock people up? The answer lies in what can be described their “progressive” approach that is really a preview of how things will be done by other courts later in time. In this case, “progressive” winds up meaning “protective,” which in turn equates things like counseling, education, treatment and testing, as in urine or breath testing. A number of years ago, the whole concept of alcohol testing as a condition of bond (release) was unheard of. The very first local court to adopt it, not surprisingly, was in Oakland County. While the idea didn’t catch on there like wildfire, the practice steadily grew and became the norm throughout most of Oakland County before it ever found its way into either Macomb or Wayne Counties. With time, first one Macomb County court, then another, and thereafter still more began to require anyone facing a DUI charge, including a first offense, to test for alcohol while out on bond. By this time, the practice was ubiquitous in Oakland County, and more common than not in Macomb, as well; Wayne would soon follow suit. What does “progressive” mean, and how will it affect your DUI?
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This article will be about the great results I produced in the 4 DUI cases I handled this past week in the Detroit area. On my website and within the numerous DUI articles on this blog, I examine and explain almost every aspect of Michigan DUI cases in careful detail. Here, we’re going to look at what all that analysis, knowledge and strategy actually produces. While I am certainly at the head of the class in terms of exploring how DUI cases work, I haven’t been so good at taking it to the next level and showing off the results. To be perfectly honest about it, while I am supremely confident in my own abilities and certainly proud of what I regularly accomplish, I am somewhat modest and really don’t like to do anything that seems like outright bragging.

Good Work 1.2.jpgRecently, both Ann, my senior assistant, and my web team have told me to do this. It has always seemed to me that the more cerebral reader could figure out from the kinds of articles I write that I produce exceptional results in Detroit-area DUI cases. I’m not nearly as shy about criticizing bargain, cut-rate legal services offered by some lawyers as I am to point to my own achievements. To me, it seems rather obvious that the top tier of DUI lawyers don’t tout their finest attribute as being the cheapest, or otherwise use the same worn-out labels for themselves like “aggressive,” “experienced” or “tough.” Yet I have to admit that I have been behind the curve in posting my real-world results because I hate coming off as boastful. Apparently, I need to do just that, so I’ll oblige. Since I handle so many DUI cases, we’ll look back at the 4 DUI cases I handled in court this past week.

I don’t know how to put this without sounding self-important, so I’ll just be direct: I don’t want to be too specific about the court or parties involved in the cases I’m about to review, because I don’t want to draw too much attention to the kinds of deals I can get, or the outcomes I produce, only to have there be some kind of “law and order” backlash. If I’m going to venture into this territory, then I might as well be upfront about the fact that I expect to produce the very best outcome humanly possible in every case I take. I expect to produce a result better than almost everyone else.

When it comes to protecting my clients from the implications of an alcohol problem that is, or is not present, I can safely say that I am without equal. I am actively and currently involved in the formal study of addiction and alcohol issues at the post-graduate (meaning one already possesses a graduate degree) level. There is no lawyer or Judge who knows more about the onset, development, diagnosis, treatment and recovery (including relapse) from an alcohol problem than I do. This makes me the expert in the courtroom about what does, and, more important in many cases, what does not constitute a drinking problem. Now, on to those cases…
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The straight truth about 1st offense Michigan DUI cases is not what you might first expect. As a Michigan DUI lawyer, I pride myself on doing the very best work an producing the very best outcomes possible for my clients. If there is a way to “knock out” a DUI charge, I’ll find it. Critically important to how I define myself is the whole concept of being honest. Unfortunately, the notion of honesty gets stretched, to say the least, when it comes to lawyers marketing themselves for DUI cases. This article will be a reality check of all the bad things that won’t happen in your DUI case. Although this article is written with a 1st offense DUI charge in mind, most of what is covered applies, at least in part, to 2nd and subsequent DUI charges, as well.

If you’re reading this, then you’re probably looking for a DUI lawyer, and are likely gathering information and checking around the internet. In looking around, you can almost feel bombarded by the competing claims of “tough,” “aggressive” and “experienced” lawyers. If DUI attorney says he’s #1 is good, then DUI lawyer #2 claims that she’s better. If you keep looking, you’ll soon discover that DUI lawyer #3 claims to be the very best, and that DUI lawyer #4 charges more than the cost of good used car. Look harder still, and you’ll find the world’s cheapest lawyer, or even one that will come over to your house on Saturdays just to sign you up.

Good News 1.2.jpgSuccesses and testimonials and case summaries are carefully constructed to make it look like the lawyer spends every day in court, fighting DUI cases at trial, and winning. Here’s where the numbers tell a very different story, however. In 2012, there were 52,037 alcohol-related (meaning DUI and MIP) arrests in Michigan. Yet for all of the marketing hype you’ll find, conspicuously missing is that out of those 52,037 arrests, only 40 cases went to trial and resulted in a “not guilty” verdict. No matter how you slice it amongst all the lawyers clamoring for a piece of your DUI business, and out of all the DUI charges brought to court in the year 2012, there were only 40 people who went all the way to trial and won.

The immediate meaning of this should be clear: The statistical chance that any given person charged with a DUI can go to trial and be found “not guilty” is incredibly low. This isn’t hopeful news, nor is bringing it up good for business, if you’re a DUI lawyer. If you’re arrested for a DUI, you want to hear that some sharp lawyer can take your case to trial and win. But that’s not the reality, and I can’t abide the idea that either me, or my client is laboring under a false illusion. If we’re going to make things better, it’s not likely to happen by putting all your efforts into long shot odds of just 1 out of 1300. Instead, you have to be smart, as in realistic about things.

Yet that’s hardly a reason to give up hope in beating a DUI, because “beating” a DUI charge is actually statistically viable. Beating it a trial is unlikely, but there is always a statistically significant number of cases that get thrown out of court because of problems with the evidence. Whatever else, DUI cases don’t dismiss themselves; it takes experience, intelligence and skill to pursue and produce these results. Obviously, the best thing that can happen to your DUI case is that it gets thrown out of court. Yet banking on that outcome is a lot like playing the lottery for your retirement plan.

Here’s the “other” secret about DUI cases, at least in the cities, townships and villages of Macomb, Oakland and Wayne Counties, where I concentrate my DUI practice: Things won’t turn out as bad as you probably fear. In 1st offense cases, and really only with 1 exception (cases assigned to Judge Kimberly Small in the 48th district court in Bloomfield Hills), jail isn’t even on the menu. Let me say this again, to make it clear; you’re almost certainly NOT going to jail in the first place. Any lawyer that hawks his or her services as being the difference between you going to jail in a 1st offense DUI case, or not, at least in the Detroit area, is either completely clueless, or downright deceptive. Either way, you should run away from that kind of operation as fast as you can. Now, let’s turn to what really matters…
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